Published Articles Using Cyberball

(If you have published an article using Cyberball, please let me know and I'll add it to the list)

Original Article:

Williams, K. D., Cheung, C. K. T., & Choi, W. (2000). CyberOstracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 748-762.

Further information on Cyberball can be found here:

Williams, K. D., & Jarvis, B. (2006). Cyberball: A program for use in research on ostracism and interpersonal acceptance. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 38, 174-180.

Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism: The social kiss of death. Social and Personality Compass, 1, 236-24

Click here for Teaching & Learning Guide supplements for Ostracism: The social kiss of death

Cyberball Articles

  1. Abrams, D., Weick, M., Thomas, D., Colbe, H., & Franklin, K. M. (2011). On-line ostracism affects children differently from adolescents and adults. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29, 110-123.
  2. Alvares, G. A., Hickie, I. B., & Guastella, A. J. (2010). Acute effects of intranasal oxytocin on subjective and behavioral responses to social rejection. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology 18, 316-321.
  3. Andari, E., Duhamel, J-R., Tiziana, Z., Herbrecht, E., Leboyer, M., & Sirigu, A. (2010). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 4389-4394.
  4. Aydin, N., Krueger, J. I., Fischer, J., Hahn, D., Kastenmuller, A., Frey, D., & Fischer, P. (2012). “Man's best friend:” How the presence of a dog reduces mental distress after social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 446–449.
  5. Barkley, J. E., Salvy, S. J., & Roemmich, J. N. (2012). The effect of simulated ostracism on physical activity behavior in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics, 129, e659-e666.
  6. Bartlett, M. Y., Condon, P., Cruz, J., Baumann, J., & Desteno, D. (2012). Gratitude: Prompting behaviours that build relationships. Cognition and Emotion, 26, 2-13.
  7. Bastian, B., & Haslam, N. (2010). Excluded from humanity: The dehumanizing effects of social ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 107-113.
  8. Beeney, J. E., Franklin, R. G., Levy, K. N., & Adams, R. B. (2011): I feel your pain: Emotional closeness modulates neural responses to empathically experienced rejection. Social Neuroscience, 6, 369-376.
  9. Bernstein, M. J., & Claypool, H. M. (2012). Social exclusion and pain sensitivity: Why exclusion sometimes hurts and sometimes numbs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 185-196.
  10. Bernstein, M. J., Sacco, D. F., Young, S. G., Hugenberg, K., & Cook, E. (2010). Being “in” with the in-crowd: The effects of social exclusion and inclusion are enhanced by the perceived essentialism of ingroups and outgroups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 999-1009.
  11. Bernstein, M. J., & Claypool, H. M. (2012): Not all social exclusions are created equal: Emotional distress following social exclusion is moderated by exclusion paradigm. Social Influence, 7, 113-130
  12. Bolling, D. Z. (2011). Development of neural systems for processing social exclusion from childhood to adolescence. Developmental Science, 14, 1431-1444.
  13. Bolling, D. Z., Pitskel, N. B., Deen, B., Crowley, M. J., McPartland, J. C., Mayes, L. C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2011). Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation. NeuroImage, 54, 2462–2471.
  14. Bolling, D. Z., Pelphrey, K. A., & Vander Wyk, B. C. (2012). Differential brain responses to social exclusion by one's own versus opposite-gender peers. Social Neuroscience, 7, 331-346.
  15. Bolling, D. Z., Pitskel, N. B., Deen, B., Crowley, M. J., McPartland, J. C., Kaiser, M. D., Vander Wyk, B. C., Wu, J., Mayes, L. C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2011). Enhanced neural responses to rule violation in children with autism: A comparison to social exclusion. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 280-294.
  16. Boyes, M. E., & French, D. J. (2009). Having a Cyberball: Using a ball-throwing game as an experimental social stressor to examine the relationship between neuroticism and coping. Personal and Individual Differences, 47, 396-401.
  17. Bozin, M. A., & Yoder J. D. (2008). Social status, not gender alone, is implicated in different reactions by women and men to social ostracism. Sex Roles, 58, 713-720.
  18. Brown, C. M. (2009). Social inclusion facilitates interest in mating. Evolutionary Psychology, 7, 11-27.
  19. Carter-Sowell, A. R., Chen, Z., & Williams, K. D. (2008). Ostracism increases social susceptibility. Social Influence, 3, 143-153.
  20. Carter-Sowell, A. R., Wesselmann, E. D., Wirth, J. H., Law, A. T., Chen, Z., Kosasih, M. W., van der Lee, R., & Williams, K. D. (2010). Strides for belonging trump strides for superiority: Effects of being ostracized for being superior or inferior to the others. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 66, 68-92.
  21. Chen, Z., DeWall, C.N., Poon, K-T., Chen, E.-W. (2012). When destiny hurts: Implicit theories of relationships moderate aggressive responses to ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48, 1029–1036.
  22. Chernyak, J., & Zayas, V. (2010). Being excluded by one means being excluded by all: Perceiving exclusion from inclusive others during one-person social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 582-585.
  23. Chester, D. S., Eisenberger, N. I., Pond, R. S., Richman, S., Bushman, B. J., & DeWall, C. N. (in press). The interactive effect of social pain and executive functioning on aggression: An fMRI experiment. Social, Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, doi:10.1093/scan/nst0
  24. 38.Chow, R. M., Tiedens, L. Z., & Govan, C. L. (2007). Excluded emotions: The role of anger in antisocial responses to ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 896-903.
  25. Coyne, S. M., Gundersen, N., Nelson, D. A., & Stockdale L. (2011). Adolescents' prosocial responses to ostracism: An experimental study. Journal of Social Psychology, 151, 657-661.
  26. Crowley, M. J., Wu, J., McCarty, E. R., David, D. H., Bailey, C. A., & Mayes, L. C. (2009). Exclusion and micro-rejection: Event-related potential response predicts mitigated distress. Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, 20, 1518-1522.
  27. Crowley, M. J., Wu, J., Molfese, P. J., & Mayes, L. C. (2010). Social exclusion in middle childhood: Rejection events, slow-wave neural activity, and ostracism distress. Social Neuroscience, 5, 483-495.
  28. Degner, J., Wentura, D., Gniewosz, B., & Noack, P. (2007). Hostility-related prejudice against Turks in adolescents: Masked affective priming allows for a differentiation of automatic prejudice. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29, 245-256.
  29. DeWall, C. N., Twenge, J. M., Bushman, B. J., Im, C., & Williams, K. D. (2010). A little acceptance goes a long way: Applying social impact theory to the rejection-aggression link. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 168-174.
  30. DeWall, C.N., MacDonald, G., Webster, G.D., Masten, C.L., Baumeister, R.F., Powell, C., Combs, D., Schurtz, D.R., Stillman, T.F., Tice, D.M., & Eisenberger, N.I. (2010). Acetaminophen reduces social pain: Behavioral and neural evidence. Psychological Science, 21, 931-937.
  31. DeWall, C. N., Masten, C. L., Powell, C., Combs, D., Schurtz, D. R., & Eisenberger, N.R. (2012). Do neural responses to rejection depend on attachment style? An fMRI study. SCAN, 7, 184 -192.
  32. Duclos, R., Wan, E. W., & Jiang, Y. (2012). Show me the honey! Effects of social exclusion on financial risk-taking. Journal of Consumer Research, 40, 1480-1493.
  33. Eisenberger, N. I., Jarcho, J. M., Lieberman, M. D., & Naliboff, B. D. (2006). An experimental study of shared sensitivity to physical pain and social rejection. Pain, 126, 132–138.
  34. Eisenberger, N. I., Gable, S. L., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). fMRI responses relate to differences in real world social experience. Emotion, 7, 745-754.
  35. Eisenberger, N. I., Inagaki, T. K., Rameson, L., Mashal, N. M., & Irwin, M. R. (2009). An fMRI study of cytokine-induced depressed mood and social pain: The role of sex differences. Neuroimage, 47, 881-890.
  36. Eisenberger, N. I., Lieberman, M. D., & Williams, K.D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302, 290-292.
  37. Eisenberger, N. I., Taylor, S. E., Gable, S. L., Hilmert, C.J., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses. Neuroimage, 35, 1601-1612.
  38. Eisenberger, N. I., Way, B., Taylor, S. E., Welch, W. T., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Understanding genetic risk for aggression: Clues from the brains response to social exclusion. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 1100-1108.
  39. Fareri, D. S., Chang, L. J., & Delgado, M. R. (2012). Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6, #148, 1-17.
  40. Gallardo-Pujol, D., Andrés-Pueyo, A., Maydeu-Olivares, A. (2012). MAOA genotype, social exclusion and aggression: An experimental test of a gene-environment interaction. Genes, Brain and Behavior. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-183X.2012.00868.x
  41. Geniole, S. N., Carréa, J. M., & McCormicka, C. M. (2011). State, not trait, neuroendocrine function predicts costly reactive aggression in men after social exclusion and inclusion. Biological Psychology, 87, 137-145.
  42. Gonsalkorale, K. & Williams, K. D. (2007). The KKK won’t let me play: Ostracism even by a despised outgroup hurts. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 1176-1186.
  43. Goodacre, R. & Zadro, L. (2010). O-Cam: A new paradigm for investigating the effects of ostracism. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 768-774.
  44. Goodwin, S. A., Williams, K. D., & Carter-Sowell, A. R. (2010). The psychological sting of stigma: The costs of attributing ostracism to racism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 612-618.
  45. Greitemeyer, T., Fischer, P., & Kastenmuller, A. (2012). The effects of social exclusion on confirmatory information processing. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 462-469.
  46. Gutz, L., Küpper, C., Renneberg, B., & Niedeggen, M. (2011). Processing social participation: An event-related brain potential study. Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology, 22, 453-458.
  47. Harmon-Jones, E., Peterson, C. K., & Harris, C. R. (2009). Jealousy: Novel methods and neural correlates. Emotion, 9, 113-117.
  48. Hawes, D. J., Zadro, L., Fink, E., Richardson, R., O'Moore, K., Griffiths, B., Dadds, M. R., & Williams, K.D. (2012). The effects of peer ostracism on children's cognitive processes, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 599-613.
  49. Hawkley, L. C., Williams, K. D., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). Responses to ostracism across adulthood. Social, Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 6, 234-243.
  50. Hess, Y. D., & Pickett, C. L. (2010). Social rejection and self- versus other-awareness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 453-456.
  51. Hillebrandt, H., Sebastian, C., & Blakemore, S. J. (2011). Experimentally induced social inclusion influences behavior on trust games. Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 27-33.
  52. Hulme, N., Hirsch. C., & Stopa, L. (2012). Images of the self and self-esteem: Do positive self-images improve self-esteem in social anxiety? Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 41, 163-173.
  53. IJzerman, H., Gallucci, M., Pouw, W.T.J.L., Weiβgerber, S.C., Van Doesum, N.J., & Williams, K.D. (2012). Cold-blooded loneliness: Social exclusion leads to lower skin temperatures. Acta Psychologica, 140, 283-288.
  54. Jamieson, J. P., Harkins, S. G., & Williams, K. D. Need threat can motivate performance after ostracism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 690-702.
  55. Jarva, J. A., & Oinonen, K. A. (2007). Do oral contraceptives act as mood stabilizers? Evidence of positive affect stabilization. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 10, 225-234.
  56. Karremans, J.C., Heslenfeld, D.J., van Dillen, L.F., & Van Lange, P.A.M. (2011). Secure attachment partners attenuate neural responses to social exclusion: An fMRI investigation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 81, 44-50.
  57. Kawamoto, T., Nittonno, H., & Ura, M. (2010). Enhanced attention to social exclusion cues in Cyberball: An event-related potential study. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 77, 332-332.
  58. Kelly, M., McDonald, S., & Rushby, J. (2012). All alone with sweaty palms -- physiological arousal and ostracism. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83, 309-314.
  59. Kerr, N. L., Seok, D. H., Poulsen, J. R., Harris, D. W., & Lawrence. A. M. (2008). Social ostracism and group motivation gain. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 736-746.
  60. Kesting, M-L., Bredenpohl, M., Klenke, J., Westerman, S., & Lincoln, T. M. (2013). The impact of social stress on self-esteem and paranoid ideation. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental. Psychiatry, 44, 122e128.
  61. Krill, A., & Platek, S. M. (2009). In-group and out-group membership mediates anterior cingulate activation to social exclusion. Evolutionary Neuroscience, 1-#1, 1-7.
  62. Krill, A.L., Platek, S.M., & Wathne, K. (2008). Feelings of control during social exclusion are partly accounted for by empathizing personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 684–688.
  63. Lakin, J. L., Chartrand, T. L., & Arkin, R. M. (2008). I am too just like you: Nonconscious mimicry as an automatic behavioral response to social exclusion. Psychological Science, 19, 816–822.
  64. Lau, G., Moulds, M. L. & Richardson, R. (2009). Ostracism: How much it hurts depends on how you remember it. Emotion, 9, 430-434.
  65. Lawrence, K. A., Chanen, A. M., & Allen, J. S. (2011). The effect of ostracism upon mood in youth with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25, 702-714.
  66. Legate, N., DeHaan, C. R., Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. R. (2013). Hurting you hurts me too: The psychological costs of complying with ostracism. Psychological Science, xx, xxx-xxx. doi: 10.1177/0956797612457951.
  67. Löckenhoff, C. E., Cook, M. A., Anderson, J. F., & Zaya, V. (2012). Age differences in responses to progressive social exclusion: The role of cognition and socioemotional functioning. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 10.1093/geronb/gbs042.
  68. Loersch, C., & Arbuckle, N. L. (in press). Unraveling the mystery of music: Music as an evolved group process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  69. Lustenberger, D. E., & Jagacinski, C. M. (2010). Exploring the effects of ostracism on performance and intrinsic motivation. Human Performance, 23, 283-304.
  70. Masten, C. L., Colich, N. L., Rudie, J. D., Bookheimer, S. Y., Eisenberger, N. I., & Dapretto, M. (2011). An fMRI investigation of responses to peer rejection in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 260–270.
  71. Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Borofsky, L., Pfeifer, J.H., McNealy, K., & Dapretto, M. (2009). Neural correlates of social exclusion during adolescence: Understanding the distress of peer rejection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4, 143-157.
  72. Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Borofsky, L., Pfeifer, J. H., McNealy, K., & Dapretto, M. (2011). Subgenual anterior cingulate responses to peer rejection: A marker of adolescents' risk for depression. Development & Psychopathology, 23, 283-292.
  73. Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Pfeifer, J.H., & Dapretto, M. (2010). Witnessing peer rejection during adolescence: Neural correlates of empathy for experiences of social exclusion. Social Neuroscience, 5, 496-507.
  74. Masten, C. L., Morelli, S., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2011). An fMRI investigation of empathy for “social pain” and subsequent prosocial behavior NeuroImage, 55, 381-388.
  75. Masten, C. L., Telzer, E. H., Fuligni, A., Lieberman, M. D., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2012). Time spent with friends in adolescence relates to less neural sensitivity to later peer rejection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 106-114.
  76. Maurage, P., Joassin, F., Philippot, P., Heeren, A., Vermeulen, N., Mahau, P., Delperdange, C., Corneille, O., Luminet, O., and Timary, P. D.(2012). Disrupted regulation of social exclusion in alcohol-dependence: An fMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37, 2067-2075.
  77. McDonald, M. M. & Donnellan, M. B.(2012). Is ostracism a strong situation? The influence of personality in reactions to rejection. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 614–618.
  78. McPartland, J. C., Crowley, M. J., Perszyk, D. R., Naples, A. J., Mukerji, C. E., Wu, J., Molfese, P., Bolling, D., Pelphrey, K. A., & Mayes, L. C. (2011). Temporal dynamics reveal atypical brain response to social exclusion in autism. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 271-279.
  79. Moor, B. G., Güroglu, B., Macks, Z. A. O. D., Rombouts, S. A. R. B., Molen, M. W. V. D., & Crone, E. A. (2012). Social exclusion and punishment of excluders: Neural correlates and developmental trajectories. NeuroImage, 59, 708-717.
  80. Murray-Close, D., (2011). Autonomic reactivity and romantic relational aggression among female emerging adults: Moderating roles of social and cognitive risk. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 80, 28–35.
  81. Masten, C. L., Telzer, E. H., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2011). An fMRI investigation of attributing negative social treatment to racial discrimination. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 1042-1051.
  82. Nietlisbach, G., & Maercker, A. (2009). Effects of social exclusion in trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1, 323-331.
  83. Nordgren, L. F., Banas, K., MacDonald, G. (2011). Empathy gaps for social pain: Why people underestimate the pain of social suffering. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 120-128.
  84. Nordgren, L. F., McDonnell, M-H. M., & Loewenstein, G. (2011). What constitutes torture? Psychological impediments to an objective evaluation of enhanced interrogation tactics. Psychological Science, 22, 689.
  85. O'Brien, E., Ellsworth, P.C., & Schwarz, N. (2012). Today's misery and yesterday's happiness: Differential effects of current life-events on perceptions of past wellbeing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 968–972.
  86. Oaten, M. R., Williams, K. D., Jones, A., & Zadro, L. (2008). The effects of ostracism on self-regulation in the socially anxious. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27, 471-504.
  87. Onoda, K., Okamoto, Y., Nakashima, K., Nittono, H., Yoshimura, S., Yamawaki, S., Yamaguchi, S., & Ura, M. (2010). Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulated cortex activation induced by ostracism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5, 385-391.
  88. Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Priming third-party ostracism increases affiliative imitation in children. Developmental Science, 12, F1–F8.
  89. Perry, Y., Henry, J. D., Sethi, N., & Grisham, J. R. (2011). The pain persists: How social exclusion affects individuals with schizophrenia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 339-349.
  90. Peterson, C. K., Gravens, L. C., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2011). Asymmetric frontal cortical activity and negative affective responses to ostracism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 277-285.
  91. Pharo, H., Gross, J., Richardson, R., & Hayne, H. (2011). Age-related changes in the effect of ostracism. Social Influence, 6, 22-38.
  92. Renneberg, B., Herm, H., Hahn, A., Staebler, K., Lammers, C-H., & Roepke, S. (2011). Perception of social participation in borderline personality disorder, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 19, 473–480.
  93. Riva, P., Romero Lauro, J., DeWall, C. N., & Bushman, B. J. (2012). Buffer the pain away: Stimulating the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex reduces pain following social exclusion. Psychological Science, 23, 1473-1475.
  94. Riva, P., Wirth, J. H., & Williams, K. D. (2011). The consequences of pain: The social and physical pain overlap on psychological responses. European Journal of Social Psychology, 41, 681-687.
  95. Ruggieri, S., Bendixen, M., Gabriel, U., & Alsaker, F. (in press). Cyberball: The impact of ostracism on early adolescents’ well-being. Swiss Journal of Psychology, x, xxx-xxx.
  96. Ruggieri, S., Gabriel, U., Bendixen, M., & Alsaker, F. D., (in press). Do victimization experiences accentuate reactions to ostracism? An experiment using Cyberball. International Journal of Developmental Science, xx, xxx-xxx.
  97. Sacco, D., Wirth, J. H., Hugenberg, K., Chen, Z., & Williams, K. D. (2011). The world in black and white: Ostracism enhances the categorical perception of social information. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 836-842.
  98. Salvy, S-J., Bowker, J-C, Nitecki, L. A., Kluczynski, M.A., Germeroth, L. J., & Roemmich, J. N. (2011). Effects of ostracism and social connection-related activities on adolescents' motivation to eat and energy intake. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 37, 23–32. 10.1093/jpepsy/jsr066.
  99. Salvy, S. J., Bowker, J. C., Nitecki, L. A., Kluczynski, M. A., Germeroth, L. J., & Roemmich, J. N. (2011). Impact of simulated ostracism on overweight and normal-weight youths' motivation to eat and food intake. Appetite, 56, 39-45.
  100. Schaafsma, J., & Williams, K. D. (2012). Exclusion, intergroup hostility, and religious fundamentalism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 829-837.
  101. Sebastian, C. L., Tan, G. C. Y., Roiser, J. P., Viding, E. Dumontheil, I., & Blakemore, S. (2010). Developmental influences on the neural bases of responses to social rejection: Implications of social neuroscience for education. NeuroImage, 57, 686-694.
  102. Schoel, C., Eck, J., & Greifeneder, R. (in press). A matter of vertical position: Consequences of ostracism differ for those above versus below its perpetrators. Social Psychological and Personality Science, xx, xxx-xxx.
  103. Sebastian, C., Blakemore, S., & Charman, T. (2009). Reaction to ostracism in adolescents with autism spectrum conditions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 39, 1122-1130.
  104. Sebastian, C., Viding, E., Williams, K. D., & Blakemore, S. (2010). Social brain development and the affective consequences of ostracism in adolescence. Brain and Cognition, 72, 143-145.
  105. Segovia, K.Y., & Bailenson, J.N. (2012). Virtual imposters: Responses to avatars that do not look like their controllers, Social Influence, 7, 285-303.
  106. Shoulberg, E.K., Sijtsema, J.J., & Murray-Close, D. (2011). The association between valuing popularity and relational aggression: The moderating effects of actual popularity and physiological reactivity to exclusion. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110, 20–37.
  107. Sijtsemaa, J.J., Shoulbergb, E.K., Murray-Closeb, D. (2011). Physiological reactivity and different forms of aggression in girls: Moderating roles of rejection sensitivity and peer rejection. Biological Psychology, 86, 181–192.
  108. Slabbinck, H., Houwer, J.D., Kenhove, P.V. (2012). The Pictorial attitude implicit association test for need for affiliation. Personality and Individual Differences, 53, 838–842.
  109. Slavich, G.M., Way, B.M., Eisenberger, N.I., & Taylor, S.E. (2010). Neural sensitivity to social rejection is associated with inflammatory responses to social stress. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 14817-14822.
  110. Staebler, K., Renneberg, B., Stopsack, M., Fiedler, P., Weiler, M., & Reopke, S. (2011). Facial emotional expression in reaction to social exclusion in borderline personality disorder. Psychological Medicine, 41, 1-10.
  111. Stillman, T. F., Baumeister, R. F., Lambert, N. M., Crescioni, A. W., DeWall, C. N., & Fincham, F. D. (2009). Alone and without purpose: Life loses meaning following social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 686-694.
  112. Stock, M.L., Gibbons, F. X., Walsh, L. A., & Gerrard, M. (2011). Racial identification, racial discrimination, and substance use vulnerability among African American young adults. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37, 1349-1361.
  113. Teng, F., & Chen, Z. (2012). Does social support reduce distress caused by ostracism? It depends on the level of one's self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 1192–1195.
  114. Ura, M., & Yamawaki, S. (2009). Decreased ventral anterior cingulate cortex activity is associated with reduced social pain during emotional support.Social Neuroscience, 4, 443-454.
  115. Uzma, S. R., Ebel-Lam, A., Mortimer, A., Kristen, M. (2009). Self-confirmation strivings in depression: An extension to the affective domain using an experimental design. European Journal of Social Psychology, 39, 900-908.
  116. Van Beest, I. & Williams, K. D. (2006). When inclusion costs and ostracism pays, ostracism still hurts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91, 918-928.
  117. Van Beest, I., Williams, K. D., & van Dijk, E. (2011). Cyberbomb: Effects of being ostracized from a death game. Group Processes and Intergroup Relations, 14, 581-596.
  118. Van Dijk, W.W., Van Dillen, L.F., Seip, E.C. & Rotteveel, M. (2012). Emotional time travel: Emotion regulation and the overestimation of future anger and sadness. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 308–313
  119. Waal-Andrews, W.D., & Beest, I.V. (2012). When you don't quite get what you want psychological and interpersonal consequences of claiming inclusion. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 1367.
  120. Weik, U., Maroof, P., Zöller, C., & Denizer, R. (2010). Pre-experience of social exclusion suppresses cortisol response to psychosocial stress in women but not in men. Hormones and Behavior, 58, 891-987.
  121. Wesselmann, E. D., Bagg, D., & Williams, K. D. (2009). “I feel your pain”: The effects of observing ostracism on the ostracism detection system. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45, 1308-1311.
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