Published Articles Using Cyberball

(If you have published an article using Cyberball, please let me know and I'll add it to the list)

Original Article:

Williams, K. D., Cheung, C. K. T., & Choi, W. (2000). CyberOstracism: Effects of being ignored over the Internet. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 79, 748-762.

Further information on Cyberball can be found here:

Williams, K. D., & Jarvis, B. (2006). Cyberball: A program for use in research on ostracism and interpersonal acceptance. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, and Computers, 38, 174-180.

Williams, K. D. (2007). Ostracism: The social kiss of death. Social and Personality Compass, 1, 236-24

Click here for Teaching & Learning Guide supplements for Ostracism: The social kiss of death

Cyberball Articles

  1. Abrams, D., Weick, M., Thomas, D., Colbe, H., & Franklin, K. M. (2011). On-line ostracism affects children differently from adolescents and adults. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 29,110-123.
  2. Alvares, G. A., Hickie, I. B., & Guastella, A. J. (2010). Acute effects of intranasal oxytocin on subjective and behavioral responses to social rejection. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 18, 316-321.
  3. Andari, E., Duhamel, J-R., Tiziana, Z., Herbrecht, E., Leboyer, M., & Sirigu, A. (2010). Promoting social behavior with oxytocin in high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 107, 4389-4394.
  4. Aydin, N., Krueger, J. I., Fischer, J., Hahn, D., Kastenmuller, A., Frey, D., & Fischer, P. (2012). “Man's best friend:” How the presence of a dog reduces mental distress after social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 446–449.
  5. Aydin, O., ?ahin, D., Güzel, H., Abayhan, Y., Kaya, A., & Ceylan, S. (2013). Ait Olma ?htiyac?n?n ve Haberdar Olman?n Psikolojik D??lanmaya Gösterilen Tepkiler Üzerindeki Etkileri. (The effects of the need to belong and being informed on reactions to ostracism.) Türk Psikoloji Dergisi, 28, 21-35.
  6. Barkley, J. E., Salvy, S. J., & Roemmich, J. N. (2012). The effect of simulated ostracism on physical activity behavior in children. The American Academy of Pediatrics, 129, e659-e666.
  7. Bartlett, M. Y., Condon, P., Cruz, J., Baumann, J., & Desteno, D. (2012). Gratitude: Prompting behaviours that build relationships. Cognition and Emotion, 26, 2-13.
  8. Bastian, B., & Haslam, N. (2010). Excluded from humanity: The dehumanizing effects of social ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 107-113.
  9. Beeney, J. E., Franklin, R. G., Levy, K. N., & Adams, R. B. (2011): I feel your pain: Emotional closeness modulates neural responses to empathically experienced rejection. Social Neuroscience, 6, 369-376.
  10. Bernstein, M. J., & Claypool, H. M. (2012). Social exclusion and pain sensitivity: Why exclusion sometimes hurts and sometimes numbs. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38, 185-196.
  11. Bernstein, M. J., Sacco, D. F., Young, S. G., Hugenberg, K., & Cook, E. (2010). Being “in” with the in-crowd: The effects of social exclusion and inclusion are enhanced by the perceived essentialism of ingroups and outgroups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 999-1009.
  12. Bernstein, M. J., & Claypool, H. M. (2012): Not all social exclusions are created equal: Emotional distress following social exclusion is moderated by exclusion paradigm. Social Influence, 7, 113-130
  13. Bolling, D. Z. (2011). Development of neural systems for processing social exclusion from childhood to adolescence. Developmental Science, 14, 1431-1444.
  14. Bolling, D. Z., Pitskel, N. B., Deen, B., Crowley, M. J., McPartland, J. C., Mayes, L. C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2011). Dissociable brain mechanisms for processing social exclusion and rule violation.NeuroImage, 54, 2462–2471.
  15. Bolling, D. Z., Pelphrey, K. A., & Vander Wyk, B. C. (2012). Differential brain responses to social exclusion by one's own versus opposite-gender peers. Social Neuroscience, 7, 331-346.
  16. Bolling, D. Z., Pitskel, N. B., Deen, B., Crowley, M. J., McPartland, J. C., Kaiser, M. D., Vander Wyk, B. C., Wu, J., Mayes, L. C., & Pelphrey, K. A. (2011). Enhanced neural responses to rule violation in children with autism: A comparison to social exclusion. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 280-294.
  17. Boyes, M. E., & French, D. J. (2009). Having a Cyberball: Using a ball-throwing game as an experimental social stressor to examine the relationship between neuroticism and coping. Personal and Individual Differences, 47, 396-401.
  18. Bozin, M. A., & Yoder J. D. (2008). Social status, not gender alone, is implicated in different reactions by women and men to social ostracism. Sex Roles, 58, 713-720.
  19. Brown, C. M. (2009). Social inclusion facilitates interest in mating. Evolutionary Psychology, 7, 11-27.
  20. Carter-Sowell, A. R., Chen, Z., & Williams, K. D. (2008). Ostracism increases social susceptibility. Social Influence, 3, 143-153.
  21. Carter-Sowell, A. R., Wesselmann, E. D., Wirth, J. H., Law, A. T., Chen, Z., Kosasih, M. W., van der Lee, R., & Williams, K. D. (2010). Strides for belonging trump strides for superiority: Effects of being ostracized for being superior or inferior to the others. The Journal of Individual Psychology, 66, 68-92.
  22. Çelik, P., van Beest, I., Lammers, J., & Bekker, M. (2013). Implicit threat vigilance among violent offenders diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder: The impact of ostracism and control threat. International Journal of Developmental Science, 7, 47-55.
  23. Chen, Z., DeWall, C.N., Poon, K-T., Chen, E.-W. (2012). When destiny hurts: Implicit theories of relationships moderate aggressive responses to ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 48, 1029–1036.
  24. Chernyak, J., & Zayas, V. (2010). Being excluded by one means being excluded by all: Perceiving exclusion from inclusive others during one-person social exclusion. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 582-585.
  25. Chester, D. S., Eisenberger, N. I., Pond, R. S., Richman, S., Bushman, B. J., & DeWall, C. N. (2014). The interactive effect of social pain and executive functioning on aggression: An fMRI experiment. Social, Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 9, 699-704. doi:10.1093/scan/nst0
  26. Chow, R. M., Tiedens, L. Z., & Govan, C. L. (2007). Excluded emotions: The role of anger in antisocial responses to ostracism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 896-903.
  27. Coyne, S. M., Gundersen, N., Nelson, D. A., & Stockdale L. (2011). Adolescents' prosocial responses to ostracism: An experimental study. Journal of Social Psychology, 151, 657-661.
  28. Crowley, M. J., Wu, J., McCarty, E. R., David, D. H., Bailey, C. A., & Mayes, L. C. (2009). Exclusion and micro-rejection: Event-related potential response predicts mitigated distress. Cognitive neuroscience and neuropsychology, 20, 1518-1522.
  29. Crowley, M. J., Wu, J., Molfese, P. J., & Mayes, L. C. (2010). Social exclusion in middle childhood: Rejection events, slow-wave neural activity, and ostracism distress. Social Neuroscience, 5, 483-495.
  30. DeBono, A., Muraven, M. (2014). Rejection perceptions: Feeling disrespected leads to greater aggression than feeling disliked. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 43-52. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.05.014 
  31. Degner, J., Wentura, D., Gniewosz, B., & Noack, P. (2007). Hostility-related prejudice against Turks in adolescents: Masked affective priming allows for a differentiation of automatic prejudice. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 29, 245-256.
  32. DeWall, C. N., Twenge, J. M., Bushman, B. J., Im, C., & Williams, K. D. (2010). A little acceptance goes a long way: Applying social impact theory to the rejection-aggression link. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 1, 168-174.
  33. DeWall, C.N., MacDonald, G., Webster, G.D., Masten, C.L., Baumeister, R.F., Powell, C., Combs, D., Schurtz, D.R., Stillman, T.F., Tice, D.M., & Eisenberger, N.I. (2010). Acetaminophen reduces social pain: Behavioral and neural evidence. Psychological Science, 21, 931-937.
  34. DeWall, C. N., Masten, C. L., Powell, C., Combs, D., Schurtz, D. R., & Eisenberger, N.R. (2012). Do neural responses to rejection depend on attachment style? An fMRI study. SCAN, 7, 184 -192.
  35. Dorn, K., Hook, J. N., Davis, D. E., Van Tongeren, D. R., & Worthington, E. r. (2014). Behavioral methods of assessing forgiveness. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9, 75-80. doi:10.1080/17439760.2013.84426
  36. Duclos, R., Wan, E. W., & Jiang, Y. (2012). Show me the honey! Effects of social exclusion on financial risk-taking. Journal of Consumer Research, 40, 1480-1493.
  37. Eisenberger, N. I., Jarcho, J. M., Lieberman, M. D., & Naliboff, B. D. (2006). An experimental study of shared sensitivity to physical pain and social rejection. Pain, 126, 132–138.
  38. Eisenberger, N. I., Gable, S. L., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). fMRI responses relate to differences in real world social experience. Emotion, 7, 745-754.
  39. Eisenberger, N. I., Inagaki, T. K., Rameson, L., Mashal, N. M., & Irwin, M. R. (2009). An fMRI study of cytokine-induced depressed mood and social pain: The role of sex differences. Neuroimage, 47, 881-890.
  40. Eisenberger, N. I., Lieberman, M. D., & Williams, K.D. (2003). Does rejection hurt? An fMRI study of social exclusion. Science, 302, 290-292.
  41. Eisenberger, N. I., Taylor, S. E., Gable, S. L., Hilmert, C.J., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Neural pathways link social support to attenuated neuroendocrine stress responses. Neuroimage, 35, 1601-1612.
  42. Eisenberger, N. I., Way, B., Taylor, S. E., Welch, W. T., & Lieberman, M. D. (2007). Understanding genetic risk for aggression: Clues from the brains response to social exclusion. Biological Psychiatry, 61, 1100-1108.
  43. Fareri, D. S., Chang, L. J., & Delgado, M. R. (2012). Effects of direct social experience on trust decisions and neural reward circuitry. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 6, 148, 1-17.
  44. Gallardo-Pujol, D. D., Andrés-Pueyo, A. A., & Maydeu-Olivares, A. A. (2013). MAOA genotype, social exclusion and aggression: An experimental test of a gene–environment interaction. Genes, Brain & Behavior, 12, 140-145. doi:10.1111/j.1601-183X.2012.00868.x
  45. Geniole, S. N., Carré, J. M., & McCormick, C. M. (2011). State, not trait, neuroendocrine function predicts costly reactive aggression in men after social exclusion and inclusion. Biological Psychology, 87, 137-145.
  46. Gonsalkorale, K. & Williams, K. D. (2007). The KKK won’t let me play: Ostracism even by a despised outgroup hurts. European Journal of Social Psychology, 37, 1176-1186.
  47. Goodacre, R. & Zadro, L. (2010). O-Cam: A new paradigm for investigating the effects of ostracism. Behavior Research Methods, 42, 768-774.
  48. Goodwin, S. A., Williams, K. D., & Carter-Sowell, A. R. (2010). The psychological sting of stigma: The costs of attributing ostracism to racism. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 612-618.
  49. Gratz, K. L., Dixon-Gordon, K. L., Breetz, A., & Tull, M. (2013). A laboratory-based examination of responses to social rejection in borderline personality disorder: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Journal of Personality Disorders, 27, 157-171. doi:10.1521/pedi.2013.27.2.157
  50. Greitemeyer, T., Fischer, P., & Kastenmuller, A. (2012). The effects of social exclusion on confirmatory information processing. European Journal of Social Psychology, 42, 462-469.
  51. Güro?lu, B., Will, G., & Klapwijk, E. T. (2013). Some bullies are more equal than others: Peer relationships modulate altruistic punishment of bullies after observing ostracism. International Journal of Developmental Science, 7, 13-23.
  52. Gutz, L., Küpper, C., Renneberg, B., & Niedeggen, M. (2011). Processing social participation: An event-related brain potential study. Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuropsychology, 22, 453-458.
  53. Harmon-Jones, E., Peterson, C. K., & Harris, C. R. (2009). Jealousy: Novel methods and neural correlates. Emotion, 9, 113-117.
  54. Hawes, D. J., Zadro, L., Fink, E., Richardson, R., O'Moore, K., Griffiths, B., Dadds, M. R., & Williams, K. D. (2012). The effects of peer ostracism on children's cognitive processes, European Journal of Developmental Psychology, 9, 599-613.
  55. Hawes, D. J., Zadro, L., Iannuzzelli, R., Godwin, A., MacNevin, G., Dadds, M. R., Griffiths, B., & Richardson, R. (2013). Internalising problems and the effects of peer ostracism on children's primary needs. International Journal of Developmental Science, 7, 41-45.
  56. Hawkley, L. C., Williams, K. D., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2011). Responses to ostracism across adulthood. Social, Cognitive & Affective Neuroscience, 6, 234-243.
  57. Hess, Y. D., & Pickett, C. L. (2010). Social rejection and self- versus other-awareness. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 46, 453-456.
  58. Hillebrandt, H., Sebastian, C., & Blakemore, S. J. (2011). Experimentally induced social inclusion influences behavior on trust games. Cognitive Neuroscience, 2, 27-33.
  59. Howard, A. M., Landau, S., & Pryor, J. B. (2014). Peer bystanders to bullying: Who wants to play with the victim? Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 42, 265-276. doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9770-8
  60. Hulme, N., Hirsch. C., & Stopa, L. (2012). Images of the self and self-esteem: Do positive self-images improve self-esteem in social anxiety? Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 41, 163-173.
  61. Iffland, B., Sansen, L. M., Catani, C., & Neuner, F. (2014). Rapid heartbeat, but dry palms: reactions of heart rate and skin conductance levels to social rejection. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-10.
  62. IJzerman, H., Gallucci, M., Pouw, W. T. J. L., Weiβgerber, S.C., Van Doesum, N. J., & Williams, K. D. (2012). Cold-blooded loneliness: Social exclusion leads to lower skin temperatures. Acta Psychologica, 140, 283-288.
  63. Jamieson, J. P., Harkins, S. G., & Williams, K. D. Need threat can motivate performance after ostracism. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 36, 690-702.
  64. Jarva, J. A., & Oinonen, K. A. (2007). Do oral contraceptives act as mood stabilizers? Evidence of positive affect stabilization. Archives of Women's Mental Health, 10, 225-234.
  65. Karremans, J. C., Heslenfeld, D. J., van Dillen, L. F., & Van Lange, P. A. M. (2011). Secure attachment partners attenuate neural responses to social exclusion: An fMRI investigation. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 81, 44-50.
  66. Kawamoto, T., Nittono, H., & Ura, M. (2013). Cognitive, Affective, and Motivational Changes during Ostracism: An ERP, EMG, and EEG Study Using a Computerized Cyberball Task. Neuroscience Journal, xx, xxx-xxx.
  67. Kawamoto, T., Nittonno, H., & Ura, M. (2010). Enhanced attention to social exclusion cues in Cyberball: An event-related potential study. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 77, 332-332.
  68. Kawamoto, T., Nittono, H., & Ura, M. (2011). Is not being chosen by others in a group negatively perceived? An event-related potential examination. Japanese Journal of Physiological Psychology And Psychophysiology, 29, 33-40.
  69. Kelly, M., McDonald, S., & Kellett, D. (2013). The psychological effects of ostracism following traumatic brain injury. Brain Injury, 27, 1676-1684. doi:10.3109/02699052.2013.834381
  70. Kelly, M., McDonald, S., & Rushby, J. (2012). All alone with sweaty palms -- physiological arousal and ostracism. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 83, 309-314.
  71. Kerr, N. L., Seok, D. H., Poulsen, J. R., Harris, D. W., & Lawrence. A. M. (2008). Social ostracism and group motivation gain. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 736-746.
  72. Kesting, M-L., Bredenpohl, M., Klenke, J., Westerman, S., & Lincoln, T. M. (2013). The impact of social stress on self-esteem and paranoid ideation. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental. Psychiatry, 44, 122-e128.
  73. Knausenberger, J., Hellmann, J. H., & Echterhoff, G. (2014). When virtual contact is all you need: Subtle reminders of facebook preempt social-contact restoration after exclusion. European Journal of Social Psychology, xx, xxx-xxx. doi:10.1002/ejsp.2035
  74. Knowles, M. L. (2014).Social rejection increases perspective taking. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 55, 126-132. doi:10.1016/j.jesp.2014.06.008
  75. Krill, A., & Platek, S. M. (2009). In-group and out-group membership mediates anterior cingulate activation to social exclusion. Evolutionary Neuroscience, 1, 1-7.
  76. Krill, A.L., Platek, S.M., & Wathne, K. (2008). Feelings of control during social exclusion are partly accounted for by empathizing personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 684–688.
  77. Lakin, J. L., Chartrand, T. L., & Arkin, R. M. (2008). I am too just like you: Nonconscious mimicry as an automatic behavioral response to social exclusion. Psychological Science, 19, 816–822.
  78. Lau, G., Moulds, M. L. & Richardson, R. (2009). Ostracism: How much it hurts depends on how you remember it. Emotion, 9, 430-434.
  79. Lawrence, K. A., Chanen, A. M., & Allen, J. S. (2011). The effect of ostracism upon mood in youth with borderline personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 25, 702-714.
  80. Legate, N., DeHaan, C. R., Weinstein, N., & Ryan, R. R. (2013). Hurting you hurts me too: The psychological costs of complying with ostracism. Psychological Science, 24, 583-588. doi: 10.1177/0956797612457951.
  81. Leiro, J., & Zwolinski, J. (2014). How are prosocial responses to ostracism related to thwarted psychological needs?. Psi Chi Journal of Psychological Research, 19, 76-84.
  82. Lelieveld, G., Moor, B., Crone, E. A., Karremans, J. C., & van Beest, I. (2013). A penny for your pain? The financial compensation of social pain after exclusion. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 4, 206-214.
  83. Levinson, C. A., Langer, J. K., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2013). Reactivity to exclusion prospectively predicts social anxiety symptoms in young adults. Behavior Therapy, 44, 470-478. doi:10.1016/j.beth.2013.04.007
  84. Lincoln, T. M., Stahnke, J., & Moritz, S. (2014). The Short-Term Impact of a Paranoid Explanation on Self-esteem: An Experimental Study. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 38, 397-406. doi: 10.1007/s10608-014-9600-5
  85. Löckenhoff, C. E., Cook, M. A., Anderson, J. F., & Zaya, V. (2012). Age differences in responses to progressive social exclusion: The role of cognition and socioemotional functioning. The Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences. 10.1093/geronb/gbs042.
  86. Loersch, C., & Arbuckle, N. L. (in press). Unraveling the mystery of music: Music as an evolved group process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.
  87. Lustenberger, D. E., & Jagacinski, C. M. (2010). Exploring the effects of ostracism on performance and intrinsic motivation. Human Performance, 23, 283-304.
  88. Masten, C. L., Colich, N. L., Rudie, J. D., Bookheimer, S. Y., Eisenberger, N. I., & Dapretto, M. (2011). An fMRI investigation of responses to peer rejection in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 1, 260–270.
  89. Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Borofsky, L., Pfeifer, J.H., McNealy, K., & Dapretto, M. (2009). Neural correlates of social exclusion during adolescence: Understanding the distress of peer rejection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 4, 143-157.
  90. Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Borofsky, L., Pfeifer, J. H., McNealy, K., & Dapretto, M. (2011). Subgenual anterior cingulate responses to peer rejection: A marker of adolescents' risk for depression. Development & Psychopathology, 23, 283-292.
  91. Masten, C. L., Eisenberger, N. I., Pfeifer, J.H., & Dapretto, M. (2010). Witnessing peer rejection during adolescence: Neural correlates of empathy for experiences of social exclusion. Social Neuroscience, 5, 496-507.
  92. Masten, C. L., Morelli, S., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2011). An fMRI investigation of empathy for “social pain” and subsequent prosocial behavior NeuroImage, 55, 381-388.
  93. Masten, C. L., Telzer, E. H., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2011). An fMRI investigation of attributing negative social treatment to racial discrimination. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 1042-1051.
  94. Masten, C. L., Telzer, E. H., Fuligni, A., Lieberman, M. D., & Eisenberger, N. I. (2012). Time spent with friends in adolescence relates to less neural sensitivity to later peer rejection. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 7, 106-114.
  95. Maurage, P., Joassin, F., Philippot, P., Heeren, A., Vermeulen, N., Mahau, P., Delperdange, C., Corneille, O., Luminet, O., and Timary, P. D.(2012). Disrupted regulation of social exclusion in alcohol-dependence: An fMRI study. Neuropsychopharmacology, 37, 2067-2075.
  96. McDonald, M. M. & Donnellan, M. B.(2012). Is ostracism a strong situation? The influence of personality in reactions to rejection. Journal of Research in Personality, 46, 614–618.
  97. McPartland, J. C., Crowley, M. J., Perszyk, D. R., Naples, A. J., Mukerji, C. E., Wu, J., Molfese, P., Bolling, D., Pelphrey, K. A., & Mayes, L. C. (2011). Temporal dynamics reveal atypical brain response to social exclusion in autism. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 9, 271-279.
  98. Miller, H. C., Bourrasseau, C., Williams, K. D., & Molet, M. (2014). There is no sweet escape from social pain: Glucose does not attenuate the effects of ostracism. Physiology & Behavior, 1248-14. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2013.10.032
  99. Moor, B. G., Güroglu, B., Macks, Z. A. O. D., Rombouts, S. A. R. B., Molen, M. W. V. D., & Crone, E. A. (2012). Social exclusion and punishment of excluders: Neural correlates and developmental trajectories. NeuroImage, 59, 708-717.
  100. Molet, M., Macquet, B., Lefebvre, O., & Williams, K. D. (2013). A focused attention intervention for coping with ostracism. Consciousness and Cognition: An International Journal, 22, 1262-1270. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2013.08.010
  101. Munnelly, A., Martin, G., Dack, C., Zedginidze, A., & McHugh, L. (2014). The transfer of social exclusion and inclusion functions through derived stimulus relations. Learning & Behavior, 42, 270-280. doi:10.3758/s13420-014-0144-z
  102. Murray-Close, D., (2011). Autonomic reactivity and romantic relational aggression among female emerging adults: Moderating roles of social and cognitive risk. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 80, 28–35.
  103. Nietlisbach, G., & Maercker, A. (2009). Effects of social exclusion in trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 1, 323-331.
  104. Nordgren, L. F., Banas, K., MacDonald, G. (2011). Empathy gaps for social pain: Why people underestimate the pain of social suffering. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100, 120-128.
  105. Nozaki, Y., Koyasu, M. (2013). The relationship between trait emotional intelligence and interaction with ostracized others’ retaliation. PLoS ONE, 8, 1.
  106. Nordgren, L. F., McDonnell, M-H. M., & Loewenstein, G. (2011). What constitutes torture? Psychological impediments to an objective evaluation of enhanced interrogation tactics. Psychological Science, 22, 689.
  107. O'Brien, E., Ellsworth, P.C., & Schwarz, N. (2012). Today's misery and yesterday's happiness: Differential effects of current life-events on perceptions of past wellbeing. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 48, 968–972.
  108. Oaten, M. R., Williams, K. D., Jones, A., & Zadro, L. (2008). The effects of ostracism on self-regulation in the socially anxious. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27, 471-504.
  109. Onoda, K., Okamoto, Y., Nakashima, K., Nittono, H., Yoshimura, S., Yamawaki, S., Yamaguchi, S., & Ura, M. (2010). Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulated cortex activation induced by ostracism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5, 385-391.
  110. Over, H., & Carpenter, M. (2009). Priming third-party ostracism increases affiliative imitation in children. Developmental Science, 12, F1–F8.
  111. Perry, Y., Henry, J. D., Sethi, N., & Grisham, J. R. (2011). The pain persists: How social exclusion affects individuals with schizophrenia. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 50, 339-349.
  112. Peterson, C. K., Gravens, L. C., & Harmon-Jones, E. (2011). Asymmetric frontal cortical activity and negative affective responses to ostracism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 6, 277-285.
  113. Pharo, H., Gross, J., Richardson, R., & Hayne, H. (2011). Age-related changes in the effect of ostracism. Social Influence, 6, 22-38.
  114. Plaisier, X. S., & Konijn, E. A. (2013). Rejected by peers—Attracted to antisocial media content: Rejection-based anger impairs moral judgment among adolescents. Developmental Psychology, 49, 1165-1173. doi:10.1037/a0029399
  115. Qu, C., Wang, Y., & Huang, Y. (2013). Social exclusion modulates fairness consideration in the ultimatum game: An ERP study. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7
  116. Renneberg, B., Herm, H., Hahn, A., Staebler, K., Lammers, C-H., & Roepke, S. (2011). Perception of social participation in borderline personality disorder, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 19, 473–480.
  117. Riem, M. M. E., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., Huffmeijer, R., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2013). Does intranasal oxytocin promote prosocial behavior to an excluded fellow player? A randomized-controlled trial with cyberball. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 38, 1418-1425. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2012.12.023
  118. Riva, P., Romero Lauro, J., DeWall, C. N., & Bushman, B. J. (2012). Buffer the pain away: Stimulating the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex reduces pain following social exclusion.Psychological Science, 23, 1473-1475.
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